Pakistani Culture: Sources & Drivers


Although Pakistan is only a 70-years old nation-state, all its federating units are proud inheritors of thousands of years old rich cultural traditions However, slowly but surely, distinct Pakistani culture is emerging with its own peculiar ethnic Pakistani touch, encompassing a kaleidoscopic blend of individual cultures of various provinces, regions, classes, and communities. With contributions from diverse sources, indigenous and foreign, Pakistan’s culture is naturally pluralistic reflecting the spatial diversity and historical trajectories of the country.

This article attempts to trace the multiple sources of its cultural heritage as well as the drivers of its changing nature.


Every culture is a product of history, geography, climate, and socioeconomic interactions with the outside world, manifested in all facets of a society’s daily life-food, shelter, clothing, ideas/beliefs, entertainment, etc. No society or culture remains static over time. It keeps on changing under the requirements of the stage of its technological and economic development accompanied by attendant structural and institutional changes.

The same is the case with Pakistan, home to over 15 major ethnic groups that differ in physical features, customs, dress, food, and music. It is a melting pot of Indian, Persian, Afghan, Central Asian, and Western Asian influences brought by foreign invasions and trade relations and strongly shaped by Islam since it first came to the region in AD 700.

This cultural evolution has been influenced, like all other cultures, by several drivers of historical development;here are the six main sources of our cultural heritage.

  1. Indus State Heritage

Pakistan is the inheritor of the world’s earliest urban civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization which started around 5500 BCE and lasted till around 1500 BCE. Known for its extensive use of bronze, they developed new techniques in handicrafts, built its cities using the grid system with roadside drainage systems and multi-story houses made with bricks. Consequently, like every other ancient civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization has left rich legacies in all the regions of Pakistan, providing a solid common foundation for the evolution of national culture.

Unfortunately, there are no surviving grand monuments of the Indus Valley because their cities have almost vanished. However, their knowledge and skills still survive in our cuisine, architecture, clothing and fashion, agricultural practices, arts & crafts, trading conventions, etc

We have inherited our staple diets of lentil and bread from the Indus Valley people who were forced to use a heavy intake of fat and carbohydrates due to the harshness of the climate and heavy load of work. Wheat imported by them from the Fertile Crescent and grown in the fields of Punjab and Sindh soon replaced barley as the main ingredient of our bread. Frequent famines taught them how to use grass (Saag) along with vegetables as a second dish. Before the British introduced the third timing of food eating—breakfast, we used to have only ‘do waqat ki roti'(two meals a day) –11 o clock after finishing the work at the fields, and 6 pm dinner before going to bed.

Beads and pendants are very important forms of ornament that have a very long history in the Indus Valley. Buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE. Many crafts such as shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed steatite bead making were used in the making of necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites, and some of these crafts are still practised in the subcontinent today. Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai), the use of collyrium, and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in Pakistan. Terracotta female figurines were found (ca. 2800-2600 BCE) which had red colour applied to the “manga” (line of partition of the hair).

Most of the themes of the folk stories, wedding dances, belief in magic, sacredness of cows, ritual bathing, bull-baiting, possibly yoga, symbols like the Swastika, and the endless knot which are auspicious symbols of Buddhism / Jainism today owe their origins to our Indus people. The Indus valley people lived in peace and their gift to us is showing us how to live in peace. Village structure and respect for authority are still the same as were prevalent during the Indus valley civilisation. Many pieces of touchstones bearing gold streaks probably used for testing the purity of gold were found in Mohenjo Daro. Such a technique is still used in many towns and cities of the Sub-continent.

The IVC may have been the first civilization to use wheeled transport. These advances may have included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of seagoing craft.

The people of the Indus Valley have also passed on lots of games; kabbaddi, chariot racing, wrestling, gulli danda, etc owe a lot to our Indus people ancestors. The dice that were used in the Indus Valley is very similar to the ones we use today. An early form of chess may have been used in the Indus Valley. Objects with grids on them and playing pieces have been found in the Indus Valley. 5,000-year-old things Indians still use from the Harappans

  • Islamic Influence

Islam came to India from two different directions namely from the south in 712 CE in the wake of the Muslim conquest of Sindh and Punjab, and then onwards from the north western side as a result of invasions by the Central Asian conquerors. Consequently, over some time, there emerged a distinct Indian Muslim culture with a mixture of hardcore Islamic teachings as well as religiously sanctified local customs and traditions. Accordingly, Islam’s contributions to Pakistani culture can be seen in every aspect of its culture from two different perspectives.

As 98% of Pakistan’s population is Muslims, one will find the hardcore of their religious beliefs consist of the fundamental Islamic beliefs and rituals discernible in any Muslim majority society i. e., belief in monotheism, the finality of prophethood, life after death, prayers, zakat, fasting, celebrating Islamic festivals like  Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, etc. Islam created the division of halal and haram in food, in particular eating the meat of only those animals which have been declared as halal and have been slaughtered under the Islamic injunctions. Similarly, its injunctions against pork and wine resulted in their banishment from our cuisine. The dress code for religious ceremonies is also influenced by Islamic traditions. Around 40% of Urdu vocabulary consists of Arabic words, thanks to the use of Arabic as a religious language of people. 

The second perspective to observe Islam’s contributions to Pakistan culture is the way indigenous beliefs and customs have been adopted by the majority of Pakistani Muslims considering them to be Islamic. In fact, there is a considerable body of beliefs and practices which are of Indian, Central Asian, and Persian origin but have been sanctified by the religious elite. As such they are considered Islamic in this part of the world although you won’t find them being practised in other Muslim societies outside South Asia. Thus peeri/mureedi, magic, some festivals, various rites observed at marriages, dances, superstitions, mysticism, pirs, fakirs, palmistry, horoscope. etc are considered to be rooted in Islam, are actually indigenous.

Wedding rites are a mixture of Islamic traditions and indigenous practices. For example, giving of dowry to the daughter on marriage is a purely Islamic tradition. However, in certain regions of Pakistan, it is the bridegroom and his family which is responsible for its arrangement.  There are two explanations for the widespread prevalence of dowry in Pakistan. Firstly, it is considered as compensation for not giving her due share in inheritance. Secondly, it is given as a genuine contribution from parents to ensure that their daughter lives comfortably in her new house.. Whatever the justification, a purely Islamic tradition has become more of a social obligation than a need.

Another relic of the past is the hierarchical system of social stratification (caste system) which we inherited from our indigenous Indian roots. Unfortunately, Muslims added their own social stratification to this by declaring Sayeds, the descendants of the Holy Prophet, as more equal than the equals. It has now permeated all facets of Pakistani society—social relations, economic dealings, political affiliations, voting patterns, and behaviour.

While the Muslim conquerors of the Subcontinent brought the traditional rivalry between its two main sects namely Shia and Sunni to India, two other namely Deobandi and Brevelvi sub-sects sprang from the Indian soil after the 1857 uprising which was accentuated due to political vacuum. Islam fitted in the rural smoothly where several communities lived together on an economic class basis, each class protecting its corporate interests irrespective of the religious divide.

However, after the 1857 uprising, religious differences started accentuating particularly in urban areas where opportunities offered by the new capitalist development were up for grabs and religious differences were used to protect their interests. It, therefore, created a clear division between the persecuted Muslims and aspiring Hindus in their social relations—food, clothing, world view, etc, resulting in two nationalities, then two nations the precursor of Pakistan. After independence, Islam has been used by different governments according to their domestic and foreign agendas.

  • Central Asian Impact

Present-day Pakistan was the base camp for any conquer from Central Asia, and there were many. Consequently, there has been a lot of racial and cultural intermixing which over a period has been diluted but still manifested in physique, food, shelter, clothing. There are hundreds and thousands of towns and villages in Pakistan whose inhabitants are proud of their Central Asian ancestry. A lot of our cuisine, particularly meat dishes, is of Central Asian origin.

They introduced horses, dogs, and camels to the list of domesticated animals. Similarly, a seizable portion of our daily use vocabulary has its roots in Central Asia i.e., Daku (robber), Qazzak (vagabond), Ghar (house), Makan (home), Samavar etc. According to several scholars, even the name of our country is a modified adoption of the name of a Central Asian region namely “Krakul Pakstan”. All four components of our national dress namely Sherwani, Karakuli cap, Kameez, and Shalwar have their origins in Central Asia.

  • Mughal’s Contributions 

Mughals came from Central Asia but settled here and ruled India for more than 200 years. One of the most powerful dynasties ruling India for more than two centuries, they bequeathed us substantial legacies in almost every field. During their rule, Indian culture and society underwent a fundamental transformation in multiple dimensions ranging from food and shelter to art, literature, and even our dress. The centralized, imperialistic governance style, Mughal art by the fusion of Persian and Indian one and culture, cuisine, and the development of Urdu language are their best legacies.

Art and culture would have been poor if Mughals had not left such rich and exquisite traditions in this field. Even the tradition of decorating the trucks for which Pakistan is famous all over the world comes from the era of crafts and craftsmen from the Mughal empire. Extreme attention paid to the intricate details in every aspect of these trucks stems from the old style of palace décor employed during the Mughal era.

They left us a rich culinary legacy called Mughlai cuisine consisting of a delicious blend of ex0tic ingredients mixed with indigenous spices besides perfecting the art of cooking by using earthen ovens and pots. These are still the norms in our cooking practices. Some of the dishes we take for granted such as Murgh Musallam or Navratan Korma are Mughal gifts to our cuisine. The same is the case with Nihari, Shabdeg, Biryani, Haleem, etc.

Talking about architecture, we cannot escape Mughal contributions wherever we go. Lahore, the occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits many important buildings from the empire. Most prominent among them are the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, the Mughal-style Wazir Khan Mosque, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, and the Shahjahan Mosque in Thatta. The Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Even the British who while introducing European architectural styles in India was greatly inspired by the Mughal architecture and built numerous buildings copying their style.

  • Colonial Heritage

Although formal British rule started after the 1857 War of Independence when Queen Victoria became empress of India, the British cultural invasion had started influencing Indian society even during the rule of the East India Company. We must give them credit for laying down impressive public infrastructure such as roads, railways, canals, telegraphs, etc.. Excavations and preservation of our archaeological sites and saving traditional languages from extinction owe a lot to the British explorers and linguists.

Foreign invasions, trade relations, and colonialism have also played a key role in introducing certain foods, fruits, and vegetables as well as dishes and manners of their cooking and eating. While the Portuguese were responsible for introducing tomatoes, potato, chilies, and tobacco, the British introduced the third timing of food eating—breakfast. Before their arrival, we used to have only ‘do waqat ki roti'(two meals a day) –11 o clock after finishing the work at the fields, and 6 pm dinner before going to bed. Having lunch or dinner around the table and the use of a fork is also a colonial legacy. While tea and refined sugar (still called Cheeni) were introduced by the Arabs from China, it was popularized by the British. Evening tea with snacks and custard are British legacies.

  • Globalization 

In a rapidly globalizing world, it is not possible to protect your culture from the global influences of the dominant western cultural influences any longer. Travel, ease of travel, and flow of ideas through print, electronic and social media is transforming every culture in multiple ways even in the remote corners of the world.

Pakistani society and its cultural values are also subject to these influences. Globalization has made great inroads in all spheres of our social life, including food, shelter, clothing, attitudes, beliefs, etc. Coffee is the gift of Globalization along with fast food, and different fizzy drinks. Lassi , made from curd, a traditional drink in the Punjab region is being replaced with fizzy drinks even in the rural areas. Black tea with milk and sugar is popular throughout Pakistan and is taken daily by most of the population.

The same is the case with our dresses, entertainment, means of transportation and communications, modes of governance, etc. Globalisation is also changing our attitudes and behavior. From a joint family to nuclear, a lesser number of children, individualism, role, and status of females, eating habits and manners are changing with the global trends.


The evolution of a particular national culture takes time in which each federating unit contributes. Let a hundred flowers of different varieties and hues bloom rather than having a garden full of roses only. Unity in diversity is the hallmark of a true federation. Cultural homogeneity cannot be achieved through the barrel of the gun or state edicts. Give respect to every major language spoken and let a national language evolve over a period.

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Geological History of Pakistan: Its Relevance for Today


According to the Theory of the Continental Drift, the Indian Subcontinent, including its north-western and south-eastern regions, which are now Pakistan, was once, in fact, millions of years ago, part of a super-continent, called Pangaea. At that time, it was attached to Madagascar and southern Africa on the south-west coast, and Australia along the east-coast.

About 160 Million years ago during the Jurassic Period, Pangaea broke into two mini super-continents, namely, Gondwana (to the south) and Laurasia (to the north). The Indian Subcontinent remained attached to Gondwana until it also broke into pieces about 125 million years ago. The Indian Plate then drifted northward toward the Eurasian Plate at a pace that is the fastest movement of any known plate (more than the speed of growth of human nails a day!).

About 90 million years ago, the Indian Plate separated from Madagascar and started its journey towards present-day Tibet where it displaced the Tethys Ocean. The closure of this ocean, which created the Alps in Europe, and the Caucasus range in western Asia, created the Himalaya Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau in South Asia. This push, which is continuing, is causing parts of the Asian continent to deform westward and eastward on either side. Concurrently with this collision, the Indian Plate has bridged onto the adjacent Australian Plate, forming a new larger plate, the Indo-Australian Plate.

These geological developments have some serious implications for Pakistan;

  1. Faultlines leading to Earthquakes

The joining of two tectonic plates has resulted in the creation of two major fault lines just beneath the current day Pakistan, making it one of the most earthquake-prone parts of the world. There are indications of many sub-tectonic routes spread over in Baluchistan, Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, and in the northern areas of Pakistan. Almost 75% area of the country is prone to earthquakes. Many active faults are broadly distributed around, at the west and north of the plate’s border-line, especially where the continental plates come into contact with each other. Pakistan has almost every known formation of faults. The 2005 earthquake, which caused massive human and material devastation in Azad Jummu and Kashmir, was just a reminder to be aware of this possibility happening again and again. If the centre of this earthquake would have been a few miles towards the east from where it occurred, two major cities of Lahore and Multan could have been devastated.

While we cannot prevent the occurrence of earthquakes from happening, we can take measures to minimize human and material loss as a result of these events. Thus there is a need to update our building bye-laws to ensure that all our future buildings, particularly high-rise must be resistant to an earthquake of at least 7.5 on the Richter scale. It also means we should create a highly efficient disaster management agency.

  • Underground Water is Seawater

Despite the displacement of the Tethys Ocean by the Indian Plate, there are a large number of pockets of residual seawater beneath the territory forming Pakistan. Consequently, too much pumping out the freshwater by the tube wells is fast depleting the freshwater aquifer more than the rate of their recharging through rains and canal water seepage.

In certain areas tube wells and turbines have reached those pockets and are pumping out the seawater, resulting in the fast deterioration of our fertile crop lands. In fact, we are repeating the same mistake, which India committed two decades ago of heavily subsidizing the tube well installation and providing the farmers electricity almost free of charge for these tube wells.

  • Climate Change resulting in Glaciers Melting

As noted above, the pushing of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian plate resulted in the formation of the Himalayan range along with the creation of huge glaciers, which are the source of all the major rivers flowing into Pakistan. These rivers, in turn, are the lifelines of Pakistan’s economy. According to new research, these glaciers are melting as a result of climate change, which could result in heavy flooding in the foreseeable future and later on total drought. There is thus an urgent need to take climate change seriously and take adaptive and mitigation measures

  • Canal Water and Soil Fertility

Plains of Punjab and Sindh had been irrigated for the last 5 decades by the water of the rivers, which originate from the Himalayan basin through the elaborate network of canals laid during the 60s. No doubt, this helped the farmers to raise their productivity manifold as they adopted new fertilizer–seed technology that was heavily reliant upon water availability.

However, for 50 years the same water has spread tons and tons of salt brought by them from the mountains on the fields. While the water evaporated, the salt kept on accumulating on the surface with the result that now the upper layers of our lands have a very heavy amount of residual salt. It needs a revision of our tube well policy, adoption of high-efficiency irrigation techniques, and R@D in the production of crops and vegetables which are salt-resistant varieties.

  • Need for Preserving the Geological Treasures

Pakistan has a very impressive palaeontological record which can be noticed while travelling by road from Karachi to Peshawar. More than 3,000 fossils of dinosaurs have been collected from various parts of Pakistan, which is one of the few countries where evidence of early whales and dolphins, who lived in the Tethys Ocean, exist. Potohar is known to be one of the richest open geological museums of the world where priceless treasures are hidden beneath the surface. The discovery of the hominid fossils of the Sivapithecus Indicus in the Potohar Plateau in 1979 was considered ground breaking in helping the world reconsider Darwin’s track of the evolutionary path of modern man. In Baluchistan, a French team discovered the fossilized remains of Baluchitherium, the largest mammal that walked the earth. It is, therefore, an utmost necessity that every effort must be made to preserve these prehistoric treasures. However, it is shameful that we are not taking appropriate measures to safeguard these treasure troves.

  • Abundance of Mineral Wealth

Thanks to its geological transformation over millions of years, 110 types of Sedimentary Formations have been identified in various regions of Pakistan by the Geological Survey of Pakistan( GSP); many areas remain uninvestigated. Patterns of Sedimentary formation in Pakistan are unique, e.g. Sedimentary deposits of Salts in the “Salt Range” of northern Punjab are holding miles of layers with estimated deposits of 220 million tons of edible salts. Similar are huge metamorphic deposits of Onyx, marble & Limestone in Baluchistan & FATA.

The world’s 5th biggest formation of coal deposits in the Thar Desert is lying with estimated deposits of 175 billion tonnes. Then there is a substantial variety of minerals and natural resources; Gold & Copper Deposits in Baluchistan. Precious stones deposits of Baluchistan, Swat, Kohistan, and adjacent Regions are among just a very few geological wonders to be mention here. Although oil and gas resources were discovered from various parts of present-day Pakistan, notably Attock. In the last quarter of the 19th century, no serious efforts were made to do it on a massive scale.

  • Need to Exploit Geothermal Resources

Pakistan is extremely rich in Dry-Steam geothermal resources that are rare on earth and found in few countries of the world. It is really unfortunate to note that this form of energy is not even recognized in the Renewable energy policy of the country. This situation is nothing but a hindrance for local or foreign investors to come ahead for the development of geothermal energy in Pakistan

Additionally, Pakistan has hundreds of hot springs scattered all over the four main geological zones of Pakistan. These hot springs are gushing out low to high enthalpy brines. As such, a good capacity of hot brines is available to the country but its utilization is very low. Therefore, most of the hot water is got wasted. While the world is utilizing most of its available underground heated water, Pakistan is simply wasting it, equivalent to the wastage of oil.

  • Potential for Mountain Tourism

Finally, thanks to the collision of the Indian Plate with the Tibetan plate resulted in the formation of the highest mountain ranges in the world, namely the Himalayas. Fortunately, Northern Pakistan is among the heavily glaciated region on earth after the North & South Poles. Three different chains of mountains meet and separate in Pakistan. Rakaposhi, a beautiful mountain, is also said to be the steepest place on Earth. The world’s 2nd highest peak K2 and 54 out of 109 highest peaks of South Asia are situated in Pakistani territory. These mountains are one of the biggest attractions for foreign tourists.

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Feminism and it’s perspective on International Relations


Feminism is a political project to understand so as to change women’s inequality, Liberation or oppression. For some it aims to move beyond gender so that it no longer matters while for others it validates women’s interests, experiences and choices, for others it work for more equal and inclusive social relations overall.
A Feminist perspective means to understand and deconstruct the normal appearing social order to unravel the hidden transcripts of patriarchy and Female/Women subordination and subjugation. The history of feminism is inextricable from the time-honored concerns of historiography : Politics and Power.
When difference(gap) between “what aught to be?” and “what is?” occurs then change in status quo needed. To bring the change, A movement driven by an ideology is needed.
In terms of women, “How women are viewed and treated in society?” And “How women aught to be viewed and treated in society?”
Women experience subordination, discrimination and…

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Historical background to the rise of Fascism and Nazism in Europe in 1930s-40s

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How Subhani Met Margaret

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Afshan Shahid

From Cotton To Kurta

I’m a business entrepreneur with an apparel manufacturing unit in Pakistan and a design studio in the UK. I’ve started this blog to provide my inspirations & motivations regarding the global fashion industry related to women and fashion .

It is a personal diary of my travel and what I collect as the latest styles, trends and fashion finds. Based in Cambridge UK , I share content from wherever I travel for my business.

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Whirling dervish/calla lilies

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The Lost Victory: British Dreams and British Realities 1945-50 by Correlli Barnett (1995)

Books & Boots

What a devastating indictment of British character, government and industry! What an unforgiving expose of our failings as a nation, an economy, a political class and a culture!

Nine years separated publication of Barnett’s ferocious assault on Britain’s self-satisfied myth about its glorious efforts in the Second World War, The Audit of War (1986) and this sequel describing how the Attlee government threw away a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to modernise Britain’s creaking infrastructure and industry – The Lost Victory: British Dreams and British Realities, 1945-50.

I imagine Barnett and the publishers assumed most readers would have forgotten the detail of the earlier book and that this explains why some sections of this volume repeat The Audit of War’s argument pretty much word for word, down to the same phrases and jokes.

And these set the tone and aim which is to extend the brutal dissection of Britain’s wartime industrial failings…

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A Portrait into the Past: ‘The reception of the Mysorean hostage princes by Marquis Cornwallis’, Robert Home (1793-1794)

The Seringapatam Times

Tipu Sultan's sons being taken hostage by the British The reception of the Mysorean hostage princes by Marquis Cornwallis, Oil on Canvas painted by Robert Home, 1793-94. Image Courtesy-National Army Museum, London

The seat of the Government of India in Madras, what is Chennai today is at the Raj Bhavan. The estate where the Raj Bhavan stands today was the home of successive British Governors of Madras from the time of Thomas Saunders in 1752 till Indian Independence. The Madras Government house where the Governors resided was greatly expanded in the last years of the 18th century by Lord Edward Clive (1798-1803) and boasted of two huge pediments that were decorated with trophies of two conquests that had laid the foundations of the British Raj in India; the Siege of Seringapatam (1799) over the Northern entrance and the Battle of Plassey (1757) over the Southern entrance.

Such were the British in thrall of the Tiger of Mysore. The last battle…

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